Chapter 1. General Agriculture
Origin of agriculture, Technological evolution, early history, Neolithic era, bronze age, classical antiquity, History of agriculture, Agriculture in India, Indian agriculture in independent India, India’s position in world agriculture in 2010, Three largest producing states in India, Rice, Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Bajra, Barley, Small millet, Pulses, Gram, Pea, Arhar, Urd, Soyabean, Groundnut, Rapeseed/mustard, Sunflower, Sesame, Linseed, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Agricultural related year, Revolution in agricultural sectors in India, Important statements about agriculture, Extension tips for successful agriculture, ICAR awards, ICAR research institutes, Important national organization, International agriculture, SAU’s, ICAR deemed agricultural universities, Central universities related to agriculture disciplines, Types of agriculture, Sustainable agriculture, Principles of sustainable agriculture, Components of sustainable agriculture, Agro-ecology, Urban agriculture, Organic agriculture, Precision agriculture, Industrial agriculture, bio-dynamic agriculture, Community supported agriculture, Slash and burn agriculture, Terra farming, Aeroponics, Conservation agriculture, Principles of conservation agriculture, Impact of conservation agriculture, Advantages of conservation agriculture, Limitations of conservation agriculture, Globalization, Agro-ecological regions, Agro-climatic zones of India.
Chapter 2. Agricultural Climatology
Definition, Classification, Factors affecting climate, Vertical structure of atmosphere, Nature and origin of atmosphere, Agricultural meteorology, Climatic parameters, Weather forecasting, Agromet advisory service in India, Climate change and agriculture, Agro-climatic zones, Atmospheric moisture, Process of cooling to produce condensation and sublimation, Clouds, Fog, Winds, Weather disturbances.
Chapter 3. Genetic, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology
Variation, Crop improvement, Aims and objectives, Method of plant breeding, Plant introduction, Selection, Hybridization, Tissue culture, Genetic engineering, Mendel’s law of inheritances, Experiments of Mendel’s, Monohybrid crosses, Dihybrid crosses, Back crosses, Linkages, Crossing over, Factors affecting crossing over, Significance of crossing over, Mutation, Practical importance of mutation, Cytoplasmic inheritance, Sex linked traits and their inheritance, Sex determination in plants, Neorospora genetics, Theory of evolution by natural selection, Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism, Theory of germplasm, Theory of natural selection, Variation, Genetic basis of adaptation, Gene pool, Neo-Darwinism, Mutation theory, Genetic drift, Isolation variation, Heredity, Mendel’s principles of inheritance, Chromosome theory of inheritance, Chromosomes, Giant chromosomes, Functions of chromosomes, Independent assortment, Plant biotechnology.
Chapter 4. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
Diffusion, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, Diffusion pressure deficit, Water potential, Imbibition, Absorption of water , Mechanism of water absorption, Ascent of sap, Mechanism of ascent of sap, Transpiration, Types of transpiration, Transpiration ratio, Stomata, Mechanism of stomatal movement, Scotoactive stomata, Guttation, Mineral nutrition, General function of mineral element, Significance of different elements for plants, Specific role of different elements, Mineral salt absorption, Mechanism of mineral salt absorption, Factors affecting mineral salt absorption, Respiration, Glycolysis, Kreb cycle, Pentose phosphate pathway, Respiratory quotient, Factors affecting respiration, Photorespiration, Glyoxylate cycle, Translocation of organic food, Direction of translocation of solutes, Path of translocation, mechanism of translocation of solute, Photosynthesis, Significance of photosynthesis, Mechanism of photosynthesis, Hill/light reaction, Production of assimilatory powers, Dark reaction, Calvin cycle, Hatch and slack’s cycle, difference between C3 and C4 plants, CAM plants, Law of limiting factors, Warburg’s effect, CO2 compensation points, Factors affecting photosynthesis, Bacterial photosynthesis, Chemosynthesis, Special mode of nutrition, Physiology of flowering, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation, Condition necessary of vernalisation, Significance of vernalisation, Growth, development, Internal regulation of growth and development, Auxins, Gibberellic acid, Cytokinins, Abscesic acid, Ethylene, Morphactine, Wound hormone, Senescence, Biochemistry
Chapter 5. Seed Technology
Role of seed technology, Goal of seed technology, Relationship of seed technology to the other science, Seed, Classes of seeds, Difference between certified seed and truthful labeled seed, Difference between seed and grain, Seed multiplication ratio, Seed quality characteristics, General principles of seed production-Genetic and agronomic principles, Seed certification, objectives of seed certification, Seed certification agency, Minimum seed certification standards, Seed legislation, Types of seed legislation, Seed legislation in India, Regulatory legislation, Statutory requirement for sale of seed, Seed testing, Seed testing laboratory, Seed sampling, Method of taking primary samples, Precaution in sampling, Sampling in laboratory, Minimum weight of working samples.
Chapter 6. Agronomy
Principles of agronomy, Relationship of agronomy with other discipline, Classification of crops- Taxonomic classification, Special classification, Mulch, Tillage, Precision farming, Drought, Irrigation, Objectives of irrigation, Soil moisture constant, Forms of water, Water requirement of crops, Factors affecting water requirement, Infiltration, Percolation, Seepage, Permeability, Coefficient of permeability, pF, Efficient water management, Irrigation requirement of important crops, Availability of water resources in India, Irrigation efficiencies, Evapotranspiration, Weeds, Characteristics of weeds, Weed causes, Useful aspects of weeds, Classification of weeds, Weed control, Criteria for successful bioagents, Kinds of bioagents, Promising bioagents of weeds, Development of herbicide resistance in weeds, GMCs and HRCs, GM crops, Bioherbicides, Commercial bioherbicides, Plant metabolites used for herbicidal activity, Adjuvants, Kinds of adjuvants, Origin of important weeds, Seed producing capacity of important weeds, Dormancy, Classification of herbicides, Herbicide/pesticide, Time of application of herbicides, Criteria for good herbicides, Methods of application, How to apply, Selection of herbicide, How to increase the herbicide performance, Tips for proper application of herbicides, After care of sprayers and nozzles, Safe handling of herbicides, Herbicide formulation, Calculation of herbicide requirement, Weed control efficiency, Weed control index, Making stock solution, Herbicide requirement of different crops, Common and trade name of herbicides, Local name, Scientific name and family of weeds, Local, trade and chemical name of important herbicide, Effective index of tillers, fertility ratio, problems related to agronomical characteristics, Assessment of agronomic interaction, Assessment of competition and yield advantages- CRE, LER, RCC, Aggressivity, Competition index, Competition ratio, Competition coefficient, Monetary advantage, Assessment of land use and productivity in multiple – MCR, CII, CI, SCII, RCII, CLUT, DI, RI, RYI, CER, AE, RSI, Physiological parameters – CGR, RGR, LAI, LAD, LAR, SLA, NAR, RWC, Dryland farming, Drought, Classification of drought, Drought resistance, Water harvesting, Mulching- mulching materials, Types of mulches, Effect of mulches on soil and plants, Antitranspirants, Different antitranspirants, Strip cropping, Types of soil conservation tillage practices, Minimum/zero tillage, Zero tillage, Concepts of minimum tillage, Watershed, Categorization of watershed, Benefit of watershed, Low production technologies, Cultivation practices of different crops.
Chapter 7. Soil Science and Agricultural Microbiology
Pedology, Edaphologgy, Soil classification, Soils, Components of soils, Soil minerals, Clay minerals- Silicate clay, Sesquioxide clays, Classification of clay minerals, Silica-sesquioxide ratio, Organic matter, Physical properties of soil, Soil texture, Soil structure, Density of soil, Soil porosity, Soil colour, Soil formation, Parent material, Weathering of rocks, Soil horizon, Soil erosion, Types of soil erosion, Consequences of soil erosion, Causes pf soil erosion, Plant nutrition, Essentiality of elements in plant nutrition, Essential plant nutrients, Forms in which nutrients are utilized by plants, Inventor of essential plant nutrients, Mobility of nutrients, Functions of essential plant nutrients, Deficiency symptoms of plant nutrients, Losses of plant nutrients from soil, Sources of plant nutrients, Nutrient composition of fertilizers, Nutrient composition of wood ashes, Green manuring, Method of fertilizer application, Enhancing fertilizer use efficiency, Nutrient content in dung and urines of different animals, Nitrogen fixation in soil of different green manuring crops, nutrient content in different types of cakes, Classification of nitrogeneous, phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, Nutrient content in different complex fertilizers, Rhizobium species and strains, Fate of plant nutrients, Soil of India, Classification of soil groups according to new classification, Saline, Alkali, Saline-alkali soils, Difference between saline and alkali soils, Sodium absorption ratio, Causes of salt accumulation, Evaluation of saline and alkali soils, Reclamation of saline and alkali soils, Acid soil, Land capability classification, IPNS system, Soil nutrient transformation, mineralization of nitrogen, Denitrification, Biofertilizers, Bacterial biofertilizers, Types of microbial inoculants, Compost inoculants, VAM, BGA, Method of application, Precaution while using biofertilizers, BNF, Strategies for enhancing BNF, Inoculation technology ND Inoculation methods.
Chapter 8. Horticulture
Importance and scope of horticulture, Tropical and subtropical fruits – Mango, Banana, Ber, Grapes, Temperate fruits – Apple, Apricot, Cherry, Peach, Pear, Straw berry, Plum, Indian floriculture industry, Export constraints, Rose cultivation, Annuals, Types of annuals, Varieties of annuals, Climbers and creepers, Shrubs, Hedges, Selection of plants, Topiary, Ornamental foliage plants, Propagation of shrubs, Landscape gardening, Natural elements of landscape, Landscaping principles, Factors affecting the landscape design, Garden styles, Art/principles of landscape, Some important landscape gardening terms, Green house production technology for important flowers-Rose, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Green house technology for vegetables, fruit vegetables –Tomato, Brinjal, Chillies, Okra, Cole crops-Cabbage, Cauliflower, Knol-khol, Bulbs, Cucurbits and gourds, water melon, Bonsai, package and practices of fruits and vegetables, Annual flowering plants, Important herbs used in herbaceous border, Fruits and vegetable production.
Chapter 9. Entomology
Pests, causes of outbreaks of pests, Principles for insect-pest control, Natural control, Applied control-Physical, Mechanical, Cultural, Biological control, List of some parasitic fungi, Important insecticides and pesticides.
Chapter 10. Plant Pathology
Diseases-Concept of plant diseases, Way that pathogens causes disease, Classification of diseases, Diseases caused by, Symptoms of plant diseases, Animate causes of plant diseases, Obligate parasites, Facultative parasites, Disease forecasting, Common diseases, Foliage and root diseases, Principles of plant diseases control-Eradication, Exclusion, Protection, Some plant protection chemicals-Seed dressing, Fungicides, Soil fungicides, Spray fungicides, Wound dressing fungicides, post harvest treatments of fruits and vegetables, Antibiotics, Seed treatment of different crops, Nematodes, Symptoms of nematodes attack, Types of parasitism, Important nematodes genera and diseases, Management of nematodes-Physical methods, Cultural methods, Physiological methods, Chemical methods, Biological methods, Host resistance, Regulatory methods, Important diseases of crops-Diseases of cereals, Diseases of oilseed crops, Diseases of vegetable crops, Diseases of fruit crops, Diseases of cash crops, Diseases of pulses.
Chapter 11. Agricultural Extension
Extension education, Objectives of extension education, Principles of extension education, Objective of extension, Basic philosophy of extension, Functions of extension, Extension education process, Teaching-learning process, Role of extension education in development, Criteria of effective extension education, An effective learning situation, Criteria of effective learning, Principles of extension, Dimensions of extension, management of extension, Steps in extension teaching, Competencies needed by the extension agent, Scope of extension, Communication, Communication systems, Key elements of communication, Basic functions of communication, Method of communication, Elements of extension communication system, A good message should be, Communication methods, Classification of communication methods, Audio-visual aids, Demonstration, Adoption and diffusion of innovations, Research attributes of innovation, The adoption process, Extension programme planning, Components of programme planning, Principles of programmee planning, Agricultural and rural development programmes in India, Information and communication technology, Historical roots of ICT in India, Some innovative rural based initiatives in India, ICT-Some prominent initiatives, Suggestions of effective utilization of ICT, Traditional folk media, Types of traditional media, Forms of indigenous communication, Participatory Research, Cyclic process of PR, GAT model, Use of media in PR.
Chapter 12. Agricultural Economics
Scope of agricultural economics, Subject matter of agricultural economics, Nature of agricultural economics, Utility of agricultural economics, Rural credit, Classification of credit, Sources of agricultural credit, Integrated scheme of rural credit, Role of reserve bank of India, State Bank of India, Agricultural cooperative credit societies, Agricultural cooperative credit structure, LLB, NABARD, Land reforms in India, agricultural marketing, Classification of agricultural marketing, Marketing services, Market channels, Method of sale of agricultural produce, Problems in marketing of agricultural produce in India, Farm management, Scope of farm management, Economic principles applied to farm management, Types of farming, Systems of farming, Classification of systems of farming, Agricultural labour, Classification of agricultural labour, Problems of agricultural labours, Suggestion for improvement of labour efficiency, Farm planning and budgeting, Partial budgeting, Complete budgeting.
Chapter 13. Agricultural Statistics
Functions of statistics, Limitations of statistics, Collection of data, Method of sampling, Classification and tabulation of data, Objectives of classification, Types of classification, Tabulation of data, Measures of central value, Types of averages, Measurement of dispersion, Coefficient of variation, Skewness, Measures of skewness, Moments, Kurtosis, Correlation, types of correlation, Regression, X2 test, Z-test, T-test, F-test, Analysis of variance, experimental design – CRD, RBD, LSD, factorial, Split plot design, Strip plot design, Missing plot techniques.
Chapter 14. Animal Husbandry and Dairying
Zoological classification of important animals, System of breeding, Breeding management, Breeds of Cattle, Buffaloes, Goats, Pigs, Sheep, Camels, Horses, Poultry, Zoological classification of important birds, Comparative statements of different animals, Feeding of animals, Principles of rationing, Important diseases of animals, Milk and milk products, Factors affecting component of milk, Colostrum, Common dairy processing, Types of marketed milk, Cream, Types of cream, Common defects of milk and cream, Butter, Defects of butter, Cheese, indigenous milk products, meat, fish and poultry technology.
Chapter 15. Aquaculture
Fish culture/fisheries, Fresh water culture system, Fresh water bodies, Seed procurement, Seed production technologies, Breeding of common carp, Carp hatcheries, Bundh breeding, Fish breeding technologies, Management of culture system, Feeding, Harvesting, Eradication of insects and other harmful biota, Feed management, Health management, Types of fish diseases, Composite and integrated fish farming, Fishes used in composite fish culture, Fresh water, Brackish water and marine cultured fishes, Integrated fish farming, Types of culture, Spawning, Prawan culture- Species, Seed, Feed, Technology, Pearl culture- Collection of mussels, Pre-operative conditioning, Mussel surgery, Post operative care, Pond culture, Pearl harvest.
Chapter 16. Beekeeping (Apiculture)
Advantages of bee keeping, Production process – Equipment requirement, Species of honey bees, Establishment of hives, Establishment of a bee colony, Management of colonies, Harvesting of honey.
Chapter 17. Sericulture
Types of silk in India, Trends in Indian sericulture, India’s position in global sericulture, Science, technology and sericulture, Mulberry improvement, Mulberry productivity, Mulberry protection, Silkworm improvement, Silkworm productivity, Silkworm protection, Silkworm rearing technology innovation, Post-cocoon technology.
Chapter 18. Lac culture
Host plants, Lac insects, Lac cultivation, Propagation of lac insects, Inoculation period, Harvesting of lac, Composition of lac, Lac processing, Lac products and their uses, Lac pests, Potential of Indian lac production.
Chapter 19. Agroforestry
Definitions, Difference between social forestry and agroforestry, Different technologies for describing tree cultivation, Possible impacts of agroforestry, Features of agroforestry, Types of agroforestry, Arrangement of components, Socio-economic classification, Ecological classification, Agroforestry based on prominent systems, Agroforestry systems based on allied components, Different types of agroforestry system, Benefit of agroforestry systems, Limitations of agroforestry systems.