1. Plasma membrane
Structure, Membrane Model, Movement across cell membrane. Translocators, Pumps, Ion Channels, Aquaporins.
SECTION I : BIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM
2. Metabolism and Bioenergetics
Metabolism, The Energy state of cell, Laws of Thermodynamics, Free Energy, Components of Electron Transport System, Electron Transport Chain, Phosphorylation.
3. Cell Biochemistry
Covalent, Non covalent bonds, Hydrogen bonds, Polar and non polar molecules, Acid Base and Buffers. Biochemistry of Carbohydrate: Monosaccharides, Diasaccharides, Polysaccharides, Starch, Cellulose, Pectin. Biochemistry of Amino acid. Biochemistry of Proteins: Protein Structure. Biochemistry of Lipids: Fats, Steroids, Phospholipids. Biochemistry of Nucleic acid, Nitrogenous Base, Nucleoside and Nucleotide. Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine.
Nomenclature and Classification, Mechanism of Enzymatic reaction, Michaelis Menton equation, enzyme activity energy concept, general properties.
Historical background, Hill reaction, Red drop and Emerson effect, Photobiology, Photochemistry, Energy transfer, Light Harvesting, Photosynthetic unit and Reaction center. Thylakoid and location of pigments. Photosystem, Physiology of PS II, Role of cytochrome b6 f, Physiology of PS I, The electron transport system, photophosphorylation, Physiology of Photophosphorylation, ATP synthase. C3 plants: Calvin cycle, Enzymes of RPP, stoichiometry and energetics, regulation of calvin cycle, Sucrose synthesis, Starch synthesis. C4 plants: C4 pathway, enzymes of C4 pathway, anatomical features of C4 plants, C4 plants environmental regulation. CAM plants: metabolic pathway. Enzymes of CAM.
Glycolysis, Formation of Acetyl CoA, Krebs cycle, Mitochondrial electron transport, Pentose phosphate pathway.
Mechanism, Enzymatic activities in Peroxisomes, Fate of glycolyate pathway, Factors affecting photorespiration.
8. Nitrogen and Sulphur Assimilation
The nitrogen cycle, Biological nitrogen fixation, assimilation of nitrate. Sulphur cycle, Sulphate assimilation.
9. Nucleic Acid the Molecular Approach
Structure of DNA, Z DNA, Replication of DNA, DNA polymerase. The Mechanism, RNA structure and types, Genetic Code.
10. Amino Acid Metabolism
Synthesis and catabolism of amino acids.
11. Protein Synthesis
Some concepts and definitions, Transcription in prokaryotes, Transcription in eukaryotes, RNA processing, Translation, Post transitional modification of proteins.
12. Fat Metabolism
Biosynthesis of saturated fatty acid, the carbon source for fatty acid synthesis, formation of Malonyl CoA:Acetyl CoA carboxylase, homomeric and heteromeric forms of ACCase, biosynthesis cycle, the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways. The ER membrane is the site of fatty acid elongation and desaturation, the first double bond in a newly formed fatty acid. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols,lipid catabolism oxidation.
SECTION II : DEVELOPMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY
13. Signal Transduction
Some basic concepts: the second messenger, signal transduction pathway, Mechanism of Signal Transduction: G protein, Calcium Calmodulin mediated Signal Transduction. Cyclic Nucleotides.
14. Plant Growth Regulators and Elicitors
Indole 3 Acetic acid, Gibberllins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene, Brassinosteroids, Jasmonic acid, Polyamines, Salycylic acid, Phytohormones and Signal Transduction Chains, Application of Phytohormones in Agriculture.
Phytochrome, Crytochrome, The Chimeric Photoreceptores, Mechanism of Photoreceptor action. The Signal Transduction Chain, Seed Germination, Seedling and Vegetative Growth, Effect of light on pigment.
16. Physiology of Flowering
Photoperiodism, Role of Phytochrome, Florigen, The Genetic Aspect, The Constans and The Phloem Mobile Signal.
SECTION III : BIOTECHNOLOGY
17. Transformation and Transposons
Transformation using Plasmid of Agrobacterium: Molecular Biology of the Crown Gall, Ti Plasmid derived Vector system. Markers, The Gene transfer. Transposable elements, Transposition, Transpson Families, Transposon Tagging.
18. Transgenic Plants
Pest resistant and Herbicide Tolerant Plants, Microbial Pathogen resistant plants.
19. Tissue Culture
Historical background, Some basic terms and definitions. The different culture systems. The basic technique, Application of tissue culture.
Genomics, Proteomics, Genetic and Physical Mapping of Genes, Molecular markers, Artificial Chromosome, Database, Sequence alignment, algorithms. Application of bioinformatics, Bioinformatics in India.